After the manufacturer produces the product, it is necessary to follow certain processes to ensure that it reaches the end consumer.
At this stage, many steps such as transportation, storage, customs operations, packaging and enwrapping of the product and then distribution should be monitored.
The system that provides control of all these operations is called logistics. The procedures for the transmission of products from the first point to the end point can be quite different and varied.
Therefore, they must be carried out by people who have been trained on this issue. Otherwise, there is a possibility of high penalties. Logistics therefore also includes planning, implementation and supervision.
When it comes to logistics, mostly the transportation of products, namely the shipping, comes to mind. But it is not right to restrict logistics only with shipping. Shipping is one of the subparts of logistics. Generally, if we make a logistics definition, we can say that it is the whole of the transactions and procedures that provide the most accurate and reliable way to reach the customer from the source of the material or information. The products must reach the institutions or persons who use them, i.e. customers, at the right time. It is also necessary to provide appropriate conditions.
An efficient competitive environment should be created during the logistics. The observations also show that this competition provides the management of logistic procedures quickly.
There are actually many areas of logistics. However, if we consider the most basic ones, the first order of importance is transportation. Transportation operations are examined in two main sections, national and international. Transportation operations can be diversified by road, sea, airway, railway, pipeline and combined.
There is storage in the 2nd place after transportation. Storage processes are examined in two classes. One of bonded storage and duty free storage options which is appropriate is selected and the transaction is made. The reason why storage has a great importance in the logistics is that the demands of consumers can be met quickly. The incoming requests also play an important role in determining product storage times and product quantity.
Customs clearance and packaging are also other important classifications in the logistics. It is necessary to comply with the rules of each country and to ensure that it is packaged in such a way that it will not be damaged during the transportation.
Logistics sector in Turkey has become a hot topic which is given importance recently. The opening of logistics departments in most universities is much later than in the world. The creation of infrastructure of transport sector in Turkey was made during the last years of the 1980s. Breakthroughs took place in the 1990s. In 2000, agreements were made with international companies and their cooperation was ensured and the quality started to increase rapidly.
Since the Ottoman period, trainings on logistics have been provided in Anatolia. Guarding, bridges, sailing and repairman works have provided the foundation of logistics. Nowadays, logistics trainings are done in two different ways as secondary and higher education. Under the Ministry of National Education, logistics training is offered in 75 high schools for the maritime sector and in 60 high schools for the field of transportation. Associate degree, bachelor's and master's degree programs are available in higher education.
62 vocational high schools provide training on logistics as an associate degree. It is given in 27 different universities as a bachelor's degree program. The quotas in the related departments of these universities were opened for 1677 students in 2013-2014 academic year and for 7360 students in associate degree programs. The number of quota is increasing every year.